As far as I know, badges are checked as part of a periodic maintenance routine.
The fifth day where you have asked a positive question was today. Your badge isn't going to show up the second you ask the fifth question, it will be applied when maintenance happens.
Additionally, as per this answer you need a positive question record, which apparently, you don't. Negative, closed, and deleted questions count against you, and if question is negatively voted, closed and deleted, it negates 3 good answers.
You might also be interested to know that you can actually track the badge's progress from your profile. See this answer for more info on what this looks like.